Theodora ve Orhan Gazi’nin Silivri’deki Evlilik Töreni

Silivri'ye ve İstanbul'a ait en önemli tarihsel süreçlerden biri Orhan Gazi ile Theodora'nın evlilikleridir. 1341'de III. Andronikos'un ölümünün ardından tahta geçen VI. İoannis Kantakuzenos'un kızı Theodora ve Orhan Gazi 1346'nın bahar sonunda Silivri'de evlenmişlerdir.


Silivri Kale Park içerisindeki panolarda anlatılan hikayenin "ORJİNALİNİ" Türkçe, İngilizce ve Yunanca olarak sizlerle paylaşıyoruz.

Osmanlı ve Bizans arasındaki ilişkilerde en önemli husus evliliklerdir. Osmanlı, taht kavgaları, Bulgar ve Sırplarla olan mücadelelerde Bizans'a yardımcı olmuştur. Orhan Bey, babası Osman Gazi'nin hayatını kaybetmesinin ardından beyliğin başına geçerek Bursa, İzmit ve İznik gibi Bizans'a ait önemli şehirleri ele geçirip Rumeli'ye doğru ilerleyişini sürdürdü. Bizans İmparator naibi ve sonradan 1341'de İmparator III. Andronikos'un ölümünün ardından imparator olan VI. İoannis Kantakuzenos ( Ιωάννης ΣΤ΄ Καντακουζηνός ) ise imparatorluk tacını kaptırmamak için verdiği taht mücadelesinde tedbirler arıyordu. Orhan Gazi'den eğer kendisine yardım edecek olursa kızını kendisine zevce olarak vereceğini ve beraberinde büyük bir servet vererek kendisini kendi oğlu gibi add ve telakki edeceğini belirtiyordu.


Bu sebepten dolayı Osmanlının desteğini kazanabilmek için Kilisenin muhalefetine rağmen güzelliğiyle nam salan kızı Theodora'yı (Θεοδώρα Καντακουζηνή ) Hristiyan olarak kalması şartıyla Orhan Gazi'ye vermiştir. Osmanlı ilk kez Orhan Gazi ile üst seviyede siyasi bir evlilik yapmıştır. 1346 yılının bahar sonu döneminde Silivri'de yapılan evlilik merasimi şöyle anlatılır;


The most important factor in the relations between the Ottomans and Byzantine was marriage. The Ottomans helped Byzantines in their fights for the throne as well as their struggle against Bulgarians and Serbians. After the death of his father, Osman Ghazi, Orhan Bey came topower in the seignioryand took over important Byzantine cities such as Bursa, İzmit and İznik continuinghis progress towards Rumelia. Byzantine Emperor’s regent İoannis Kantakuzenos VI(Ιωάννης ΣΤ΄ Καντακουζηνός), who became the emperor after the death of Emperor AndronikosIII in 1341,was looking for measures in his struggle for the throneso as not to lose the imperial crown.Thus, he promised Orhan Ghazi his daughter as his wife in addition to a great fortune in return for his help. He further stated he would always revere Orhan Ghazi.


To gain the support of the Ottomans, he thus gave his daughter,Theodora(Θεοδώρα Καντακουζηνή ), who was famous for her beauty, in marriage to Orhan Ghazi provided that she remained a Christian, despite the opposition of the Church. For the first time,the Ottomans witnessed a high-level political marriage with Orhan Ghazi. The marriage ceremony held in Silivri in the late spring of 1346 is described as follows:


Οι γάμοιήτανε το πιοσημαντικό ζήτημα στιςσχέσειςμεταξύ των Οθωμανών και Βυζαντινών. Η Οθωμανική Αυτοκρατορίαβοήθησαν στουςΒυζαντινούςστους αγώνες κατάτουθρόνου, τους αγώνεςμετουςΒούλγαρους και τουςΣέρβους. Ο Ορχάν Μπέη, αφού ο πατέρας τουΟσμάνΓκάζιέχασε τηζωήτου, πήρετο προβάδισμα και συνέχισετο ταξίδιτου προςτηΡουμέλια καταλαμβάνοντας τις σημαντικές βυζαντινές πόλεις όπως η Προύσα, η Ίζμιτ και ηΊζνικ. Ο αντιβασιλέας τουΒυζαντινού Αυτοκράτορα και αργότερα τουΑυτοκράτορα Γ΄ το 1341 VI, ο αυτοκράτορας μετάτοθάνατο τουΑνδρόνικου. Ο Ιωάννης Καντακουζένος, από τηνάλλη πλευρά, έψαχνε μέτρα στον αγώνα τουενάντια στοθρόνογια να μηνχάσειτο αυτοκρατορικό στέμμα. Είχε πει στονΟρχάνΓκάζιότι αν τονθα βοηθούσε, θα τουέδινετηνκόρητου και ότι θα θεωρούσετον εαυτότουγιοτου, δίνοντάςτου τημεγάλητύχη. ΟιΟθωμανοί είχαν έναν υψηλού επιπέδου πολιτικόγάμομετονΟρχάνΓκάζιγια τηνπρώτηφορά. Η τελετήγάμου που πραγματοποιήθηκε στηνΣηλυβρίαστα τέλητηςάνοιξηςτου 1346 περιγράφεται ωςεξής.

Orhan Gazi ve VI. İoannis Kantakuzenos
Orhan Gazi ve VI. İoannis Kantakuzenos

İmparatoriçe ve kızları geceyi imparatorluk çadırında geçirirken; Kantakouzenos ise ordusu ile geçirmiştir. Kantakuzenos, şehir dışında inşa edilmek üzere ahşaptan bir prokypsis (tören platformu) yapılmasını emretmiştir. Platform ipek ve altın kumaştan yapılmış perdelerle çevrelenmişti. Bu perdeler, dizleri üstündeki harem ağalarının taşıdığı aydınlatmalarla çevrili gelinin görünmesini engellemek için çekiliydi.


Davullar, flütler ve her türden müzik enstrümanları duyuluyordu. Enstrümanlar sustuğunda, gelinin onuruna methiyeler düzülüyordu. Ellerinde fenerlerle diz çökmüş bir şekilde görevliler gelinin etrafındaki yerlerini almışlardır. İmparator ise tek başına atına binerken diğer herkes ayakta beklemiştir. Orhan’ın süvarileri bile attan inmişlerdi. Perdeler kaldırıldığında her yanı altın kaplamalı pamuk ile kaplı platform üzerinde gelin belirmiştir. Çömeldikleri için görünmez halde olan harem ağaları tarafından tutulan meşaleler gelinin iki yanını sarmıştır.


İmparatorluk soyundan gelen geline uygun her şey yapıldıktan sonra İmparator günlerce sürecek şölene tüm orduyu ve geri kalanları davet etmiştir. Ertesi gün İmparatoriçe, Maria ve Helena çadırda beklerken, Theodora ise prokypsis’e çıkmıştır. Seremoni sırasında yeni gelin ayağa kalkıp, iki yakın akrabasının onu desteklemesiyle basamaklardan inmiş ve platformdaki yerine gelmiştir. Kantakouzenos Türkler ve Yunanlılar için günlerce süren bir ziyafet çekmiştir.


“While the Empress and her daughters spent the night in an imperial tent,Kantakuzenos was with his army. Kantakuzenosordered the construction of a prokypsis(ceremonial platform)out of the town. The platform was surrounded by curtains made of silk and gold fabric.The curtains were pulled to prevent any sight on the bride, who was surrounded by eunuchs holding lightings while on their knees.


Drums, flutes and musical instruments of all kinds could be heard.When the instruments were silent, praises were recited on the bride’s honor. Kneeling with lanterns in their hands, the attendants tooktheir place around the bride.While the Emperor was mounting on his horse, everyone else waited standing. Even Orhan’s cavalry dismounted from their horses. When the curtains were lifted,the bride appeared on the gold-plated platform covered with cotton.Since theeunuchs were kneeling, they were almost invisible, and the torches they were holding stood in both sides of the bride.


After all the rituals were performed for the noble bride,the Emperor invited the entire army and the rest to the feast that would last for days. The next day, while the Empress, Maria and Helena waited in the tent, Theodorawas on the prokypsis. During the ceremony, the new bride stood up and climbed down the stairs with the support of her two close relatives and reached her place on the platform.Kantakuzenosprovided a feast for Turks and Greeks for days.”


Theodora was brought to the coasts of Silivri with ceremonies. Here, the princess of

Byzantine boardedon a ship to be taken to Orhan Ghazi, the strong Ottoman ruler, together with 30 other Ottoman ships. By landing in Mudanya, she was escorted to Bursa.


«Η αυτοκράτειρα και τα κορίτσια πέρασαν τηνύχτα στην αυτοκρατορική σκηνή, ενώ ο Καντακουζένος πέρασε μετοστρατό του. Ο Καντακουζένος διέταξε να κατασκευαστεί μια ξύλινη πρόκριση(τελετουργική πλατφόρμα) έξω από την πόλη. Η πλατφόρμα περιβαλλόταν από κουρτίνες από μετάξι και χρυσόύφασμα. Αποσύρθηκεγια να μηνεμφανιστεί.


Ακούστηκαν τύμπανα, φλάουτα και όλα τα είδημουσικώνοργάνων. Όταν τα όργανα ήταν σιωπηλά, γιορτάστηκαν προςτιμήντηςνύφης. Γονατιστή με φανάρια στα χέρια τους, κάπως οι αξιωματικοί πήραν τιςθέσειςτουςγύρω από τηνύφη. Ο αυτοκράτορας, μόνοςτου, οδηγούσεμε τοάλογότουμόνοςτου και όλοιοιάλλοιστάθηκαν ως ακίνητοι. Ακόμα και το ιππικότουΟρχάνκατέβηκε από τοάλογο. Όταν σηκώθηκαν οικουρτίνες, η νύφηεμφανίστηκε στην πλατφόρμα καλυμμένημε επιχρυσωμένο βαμβάκι. Φακοί πουκρατούσαν οιάρχοντεςτου χαρέμ, οι οποίοιείναι αόρατοι για σκύψιμο, περιβάλλουν τηνύφη.


Αφούόλα έγιναν από την αυτοκρατορική γραμμή μέχριτηνύφη, ο αυτοκράτορας κάλεσεόλους στρατιώτεςκαι τους υπόλοιπους στηγιορτή που θα διαρκούσε για μέρες. Την επόμενημέρα, η αυτοκράτειρα, η Μαρία και η Έλενα περίμεναν στησκηνή, ενώ η Θεοδώρα βγήκεστηνπλάτφορμα. Κατάτηδιάρκεια τηςτελετής, η νέα νύφησηκώθηκε και κατέβηκε από τα σκαλιά μετην υποστήριξητωνδύοστενώνσυγγενώντης και ήρθεστηθέσητηςστην πλατφόρμα. Ο Καντακουζένος είχε γιορτάσεισε ολόκληρες μέρεςγια Τούρκους και Έλληνες »


Η Θεοδώρα μεταφέρθηκε μετελετήγάμου στις παραλίες τηςΣηλυβρίας. Η Θεοδώρα, η πριγκίπισσα τουΒυζαντίου, μεταφέρθηκε στονΟρχάνΓκάζι, τονισχυρόκυβερνήτη τηςΟθωμανικής Αυτοκρατορίας και μεταφέρθηκε στηνΠρούσα, προσγειώνοντας στα Μουντάνια.

Tasarım : Silivri Tarihi Kültürel Mirası Koruma Eğitim ve Araştırma Derneği - 2020

Kaynaklar - ORHAN BEY’İN BİZANS İMPARATORU KANTAKUZENEOS’UN KIZI THEODORA İLE EVLİLİĞİ - Tarih Dergisi, Sayı 66 (2017 / 2), İstanbul 2017, s. 47-61 Yahya BAŞKAN*

Halil İnalcık - https://islamansiklopedisi.org.tr/orhan

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